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Citing and Referencing Omissions

This category includes minor incidents resulting from misunderstanding of the rules and techniques of citing and referencing.

First incidences of this type of offence are generally given a warning and assigned a related learning task to complete. 


Review the definition, examples and case studies below.

Citing or Referencing Omissions


Making minor errors in citation or referencing conventions in an assignment that otherwise shows substantial original work.


  • Not including quotation marks around one or two short word-for-word quotes but citing and referencing source(s).
  • Forgetting to cite one short paraphrased passage from one source but properly citing and referencing all other sources.
  • Attempting to paraphrase one short passage from a source, using proper citation and referencing, but not creating enough original work.
  • Not using the citation style assigned by the instructor.
  • Citing and referencing all sources but not including all the required citation or reference elements, such as page numbers of quotes or retrieval information.
  • Not citing material that one believes was general knowledge.

Case Study

Nadia writes an essay for one of her courses. She is diligent about using her own voice throughout the essay, properly paraphrasing, and summarizing other researchers’ work. She also cites and references these outside works, including the occasional quotation. However, Nadia forgets to use quotation marks around one sentence copied word-for-word from an outside source. She provides an in-text citation for the copied sentence. Still, Nadia did not include quotation marks around the copied sentence, which may be considered an academic offence.

Why is acknowledging others' work important to your learning?

Watch the video to explore an instructor's perspective.