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Citations in Text

Basic Citation Formulas

Introduction to Citation

Citation Elements

Table 1
Citation Elements

Parenthetical Citation “The deployment of the cultural mythology of the veil in the service of empire is not unique to the U.S. context” (Jarmakani, 2008, p. 162)
Narrative Citation Amira Jarmakani (2008) argues that “the deployment of the cultural mythology of the veil in the service of empire is not unique to the U.S. context” (p. 162). 
Corresponding Reference List Entry Jarmakani, A. (2008). Imagining Arab womanhood: The cultural mythology of veils, harems, and belly dancers in the U.S. Palgrave Macmillan

Note. Adapted from American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 262.

Parenthetical citation format and narrative citation format both require the author’s last name, a year of publication, and a page number. Each in-text citation must correspond with a reference list entry.

If a source does not have a page number, it is appropriate to use another location indicator such as a paragraph number, slide number, or subtitle.

Basic Citation Formulas

Table 2

Styles of Citation

Author Parenthetical Narrative
One Author (Massoud, 2020, p. 4) Massoud (2020) argues… (p. 4).
Two Authors (Ali & Thompson, 1999, p. 3) Ali & Thompson (1999) describe… (p. 3).
Three or more authors (Rubin et al., 2004, para. 6) Rubin et al. (2004) indicate… (para. 6).
Group author without abbreviation (The University of Ottawa, 2009, slide 11) The University of Ottawa (2009) suggests… (slide 11).
Group author with abbreviation *first citation (The American Psychological Association [APA], 2020, p. 20) According to the American Psychological Association (APA, 2020)… (p. 20).
Unknown Author *use source title in place of author For a book or website: (How Project-Based Learning Helps, 2014, p. 41) How Project-Based Learning Helps (2014) reveals… (p. 41).
Unknown Author *use source title in place of author For an article: ("Achieving Change", 2013, para. 4) "Achieving Change" (2013) inspired… (para. 4).
Unknown Date (Conestoga College, n.d., para. 4) Conestoga College (n.d.) shows… (para. 4).

Note. Adapted from American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 266.