|Parenthetical Citation||“The deployment of the cultural mythology of the veil in the service of empire is not unique to the U.S. context” (Jarmakani, 2008, p. 162).|
|Narrative Citation||Amira Jarmakani (2008) argues that “the deployment of the cultural mythology of the veil in the service of empire is not unique to the U.S. context” (p. 162).|
|Corresponding Reference List Entry||Jarmakani, A. (2008). Imagining Arab womanhood: The cultural mythology of veils, harems, and belly dancers in the U.S. Palgrave Macmillan|
Note. Adapted from American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 262.
Parenthetical citation format and narrative citation format both require the author’s last name, a year of publication, and a page number. Each in-text citation must correspond with a reference list entry.
If a source does not have a page number, it is appropriate to use another location indicator such as a paragraph number, slide number, or subtitle.
Styles of Citation
|One Author||(Massoud, 2020, p. 4)||Massoud (2020) argues… (p. 4).|
|Two Authors||(Ali & Thompson, 1999, p. 3)||Ali & Thompson (1999) describe… (p. 3).|
|Three or more authors||(Rubin et al., 2004, para. 6)||Rubin et al. (2004) indicate… (para. 6).|
|Group author without abbreviation||(The University of Ottawa, 2009, slide 11)||The University of Ottawa (2009) suggests… (slide 11).|
|Group author with abbreviation *first citation||(The American Psychological Association [APA], 2020, p. 20)||According to the American Psychological Association (APA, 2020)… (p. 20).|
|Unknown Author *use source title in place of author||For a book or website: (How Project-Based Learning Helps, 2014, p. 41)||How Project-Based Learning Helps (2014) reveals… (p. 41).|
|Unknown Author *use source title in place of author||For an article: ("Achieving Change", 2013, para. 4)||"Achieving Change" (2013) inspired… (para. 4).|
|Unknown Date||(Conestoga College, n.d., para. 4)||Conestoga College (n.d.) shows… (para. 4).|
Note. Adapted from American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 266.