Use the timestamp in place of a page/paragraph number; only the time when the information starts is required.
Authors for Audiovisual Media
|Media Type||Include as author||Parenthetical Citation Example|
|Streaming video (i.e. YouTube)||Person/group that uploaded the video
*cite the username only if the author’s name is not clear
|(Conestoga College International, 2019, 0:14)|
|Film||Director||(Coppola, 2006, 1:15:12)|
|TV episode||Writer and director||(Schrader, 2020, 15:12)|
|Podcast episode||Host or executive producer||(Santos, 2020, 0:15)|
|Webinar or online lecture||Instructor||(Conestoga Library, 2020, 1:05)|
Note. Adapted from American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 341.
Parenthetical YouTube Citation Example
Kitchener is a relatively diverse city (Conestoga College International, 2019, 1:09).
Narrative YouTube Citation Example
Conestoga College International (2019) argues that Kitchener is a relatively diverse city (1:09).