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Citations in Text

Citing Streaming Videos/Audiovisual Media

Use the timestamp in place of a page/paragraph number; only the time when the information starts is required.

Table 3

Authors for Audiovisual Media

Media Type Include as author Parenthetical Citation Example
Streaming video (i.e. YouTube) Person/group that uploaded the video
*cite the username only if the author’s name is not clear
(Conestoga College International, 2019, 0:14)
Film Director (Coppola, 2006, 1:15:12)
TV episode Writer and director (Schrader, 2020, 15:12)
Podcast episode Host or executive producer (Santos, 2020, 0:15)
Webinar or online lecture Instructor (Conestoga Library, 2020, 1:05)

Note. Adapted from American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 341.

Parenthetical YouTube Citation Example

Kitchener is a relatively diverse city (Conestoga College International, 2019, 1:09).

Narrative YouTube Citation Example

Conestoga College International (2019) argues that Kitchener is a relatively diverse city (1:09).