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Citations in Text

Citing Personal Communications

Materials that cannot be retrieved by your marker (like emails, texts, live speeches, or conversations) are cited as personal communications. Cite personal communications in-text but do not include them in the reference list. Include

  • the author’s first initial,
  • last name,
  • personal communication, and
  • the full date.

Parenthetical Citation Example

“The company gives new employees a 12-day training session” (C. Blucher, personal communication, September 23, 2011).

Narrative Citation Example

C. Blucher (personal communication, September 23, 2011) explained that everyone who starts work there gets 12 days of orientation.