Skip to Main Content

Integrating Research

How do I Integrate Research as Evidence?

 Academic papers often use cited & referenced research as evidence to prove their claims. You can integrate research into your paper using

  • paraphrases (using your own words and sentence structure to communicate an idea from a source),
  • summaries (synopsis of sources), and
  • quotations (using exact words from a source)

APA style generally prefers paraphrasing over quotation. Quotations can be useful if you need to show the importance of a quote or its author, keep technical wording, or evaluate the way someone said or wrote something. Citation is required whenever you paraphrase, summarize, or quote.

Integrating Research as Evidence

When you incorporate a quote, paraphrase or summary into a paper, you need to frame the material and analyze it. 


A paragraph that has framing highlighted in purple, evidence shown in yellow, and analysis shown in blue. Framing is the introduction of context and analysis is the explanation of what the evidence means in relationship to the claim.


Framing Quotations and Paraphrases

You need to contextualize quoted or paraphrased material so that your reader understands where it came from and how you are using it. The table below shows useful sentence starters you can use in papers to begin framing your quoted or paraphrased material.

Framing Starters

You can use these sentence starters to frame paraphrased or quoted material in your papers.

Purpose Examples
Report evidence Smith (2020) asserted that _____ (p. 4). 
Indicate evidence in agreement Recent findings from a Conestoga College study have confirmed that ______ (Smith, 2020, p. 4).
Indicate evidence in disagreement A local union contented ______ (Smith, 2020, p. 4).
Indicate possibility Smith (2020) suggested that ______ (p. 4).
Introduce examples

A useful example of ______ is ______ (Smith, 2020, p. 4).

This claim is evidenced by ______(Smith, 2020, p. 4).

Evidence for ______ includes ______ (Smith, 2020, p. 4).

Introduce study findings

Smith et al. (2020) illustrated ______ by ________ in their study of _________ (p.4).

In a study of ____, Smith (2020) found ______(p. 4).

Introduce definitions

Historically, ____ has meant ____, but Smith (2020) describes its meaning as ______ (p. 4).

____ refers to ______ (Smith, 2020, p. 4).

According to Smith (2020), _____ means ______(p. 4).



In a courtroom, the prosecution and defence interpret the same material to make vastly different arguments; it's your job, just like a lawyer, to explain how the evidence supports your argument. Remember, 

  • Analysis should be your voice (notice it is not cited)
  • You control the meaning of your evidence-- don't leave your reader guessing

Analysis Starters

You can use these sentence starters to help you begin analyzing the evidence you incorporate into your papers.

Analysis Prompt Sentence Starter
What does the research mean? In other words ______.
Why is the research interesting or effective?  Her research is interesting because it shows ______.
How does this research support your thesis?  This research demonstrates ______. impacts ______.
Why is this research important to your argument? Since ______ impacts ______, it is important to ______.
What does the research imply?  This research suggests that ______.
What are the strengths or weaknesses of the research? Although the author ______, he fails to ______.



  Analysis makes sense of evidence by breaking it down to explain its implication and significance. This is an image showing how analysis comes after research integrated via quotation or paraphrase.