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Other Types of Writing


An abstract is a brief summary of your essay or technical report that goes at the beginning of the paper. 

An abstract includes 

  • the thesis/purpose of the essay or technical report, 
  • the main ideas, and 
  • keywords that categorize your essay or technical report  

If applicable, include the following topics

  • research methods/results, 
  • what your research means, and 
  • how the research can be applied to future use

Keywords allow the reader to quickly see the subject areas that will be addressed. Keywords can be 

  • major concepts/topics, 
  • specific key terms or concepts in your field of study, and 
  • descriptive words or phrases 

Tip: Keywords only name an overall category instead of a detailed point. 

Detailed Point Overall Category
Apples Fruit

Begin your list of keywords with the word "Keywords" in italics. Think of keywords as hashtags in a tweet. They are used to categorize an overall idea and are used as search terms in the social media world. Keywords do the same thing in the academic world. 

  1. Although an abstract is the first thing the reader reads, it is the last task you complete in your writing. 
  2. Reread your essay. 
  3. Write only the main ideas without looking at your essay or report. 
  4. Eliminate wordiness and repetitive ideas. 
  5. Make sure the ideas in your abstract follow the order that they appear in your essay or report. 


  • on a separate page after the title page
  • typically one paragraph in length 
  • block style format – no indentation 
  • approximately 75 – 200 words in length 
  • keywords are indented and positioned below the paragraph; italicize the word keyword


Critical thinking is part of essential skills development, and many employers expect this skill in professional roles. However, many post-secondary programs do not have critical thinking courses as required courses. This paper will analyze institutional processes of creating these courses, assess students’ investment in their learning, and compare professional skill output in the real world between students who have taken critical thinking courses and those who have not. Peer-reviewed journals and course texts were used to examine specific critical thinking outcomes in relation to student success in future professions.

        Keywords: critical thinking, essential skills, learning development