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Other Types of Writing


A summary is a concise and general restatement of a source's ideas and findings using your own words and sentence structure. It is usually 1/3 of the length of the original source if the source is in an article format, but larger works, such as books, may not follow this rule.  Ask your instructor for specifics. 

A summary must include the following pieces

  • subject 
  • thesis/purpose, and 
  • main arguments/points 

A summary may include

  • author's credibility, 
  • methods used (for original research), and 
  • limitations/biases 

  1. Read the source carefully 
  2. Highlight the thesis or argument and reword it using your own words 
  3. State key ideas or main points using your own words 
  4. Write general ideas; avoid using specific examples from the source 
  5. Provide a reference on a separate page. Ask your instructor for specific requirements 

In the first or second line of the summary, include the title of the source, the author's last name, and the year of publication. Follow APA @ Conestoga format for titles in a paper. Because you are not using specific examples or evidence in your summary, you do not need to include an in-text citation with author, year, page/paragraph number. 

        The article “Using Technology in the Classroom” by August et al. (2012) described the impact of various types of technology on student learning. Technology has improved students’ ability to manipulate and absorb learning concepts. Statistics outlining the rate at which students absorb information using technology compared to traditional learning methods are given in this article. The authors illustrated how cognitive development can be enhanced through the use of appropriate technology. A focus on implementation of pedagogy in relation to the use of technology is also addressed. 


Elements to Notice 

  • The example uses paragraph structure, so be sure to indent each new paragraph. 
  • The citation is provided within the first sentence of the summary and includes title, authors, and year. 
  • The thesis of the original text is provided using new words and a new sentence structure. 
  • The main points of the original text are shown in the summary text using new words and new sentence structures, but appear in the same order of the original text.