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Citations in Text

About Dates, Page, and Paragraph Numbers

About Dates

Include only the year for citations, with the exception of personal communications. If no date is available, use the abbreviation n.d. meaning "no date" with no spacing between the periods.

Parenthetical Citation Example

(Kim, n.d., p. 43)

Narrative Citation Example

Kim (n.d.) … (p. 43)

About Page and Paragraph Numbers

  • Always use the page number if it is available.
Page and Paragraph Numbers Table
Citation Source Location Parenthetical Narrative
One page
*use p. #
(Murray, 2014, p. 6) Murray (2014)…(p. 6)
Information spanning more than one page
*use pp. #-#
(Anderson, 2014, pp. 6-7) Anderson (2014)… (pp. 6-7)
A document without page numbers (ie. a website)
*use para. #
(Hendry, 2013, para. 6) Hendry (2013)… (para. 6)
A document without page numbers & information spanning more than one paragraph
*use paras. #-#
(VanDoormal, 2014, paras. 5-6) VanDoormal (2014)… (paras. 5-6)
A document without page numbers & information under headings (useful for long web documents)
*use the heading and para. #
(Bauman, 2014, Symptoms section, para. 3) Bauman (2014) … (Symptoms section, para. 3)
PowerPoint slides
*use the slide #
(Vermeyden, 2020, slide 4) Vermeyden (2020)… (slide 4)
Citing Video (i.e. YouTube)
*use the timestamp
(Conestoga College, 2019, 1:25) Conestoga College (2019)… (1:25)