The last element in a reference to an electronic source is typically a clickable link to the material. There are two possible formats:
Always search for a DOI first. If you do not find a DOI, and the source is not easily accessible in a database, provide a direct link/URL to the information. Use a permalink if available.
Note: If a source (like an ebook or a journal article) is easily accessible through databases, but does not have a DOI, cite it as a print source.
DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier and allows readers to access journal articles or electronic books with a type of direct link. DOIs can be found
They should be formatted as follows:
If an online source has no DOI and is not easily accessible through databases, include a direct link to the source using its URL. Use a permalink if available. Use the following format: