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Reference List

Journal Articles

Always include the DOI if available. For articles accessed from the library database with no DOI, do not include a URL. Otherwise, include the URL if the source was accessed from a website.

Journal Article


Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page # - page #. DOI or URL (if available)

Example - With a DOI

Shipley, M. (2002). Fibromyalgia. Rheumatology 2, Medicine, 30(9), 81-84.
Smokowski, P. R., & Kopasz, K. H. (2005). Bullying in schools: An overview of types, effects, family characteristics, and intervention strategies. Children & Schools, 27(2), 100-110.

Example - With a URL

Skiffington, S., Washburn, S., & Elliot, K. (2011). Instructional coaching: Helping preschool teachers reach their full potential. Young Children, 66(3), 36-41. 

Example - Without a DOI. Accessed from a Library Database, or in Print

Vermeyden, A., & Mohamed, E. (2020). Making Canada Home: Snapshots of Syrian and Iraqi Newcomer Cultural Production in the Waterloo Region, 2016-2019. Refuge, 36(1), 30-39.

Article from the UpToDate Database

Articles in the UpToDate database are only available there. These references include a retrieval statement because the information in these articles changes.


Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Database. Retrieval statement.


Morey, M. C. (2019). Physical activity and exercise in older adults. UpToDate. Retrieved July 22, 2019.