Use the following table to help you create references and citations that are missing key information.
|Missing element||Solution||Example of reference||Example of in-text citations|
|Author||Place the title in the author place||Understanding Youth. (2013). eConestoga.||(Understanding Youth, 2013, p. 14).
According to Understanding Youth (2013)… (p.13).
|Date||Write “n.d.” in place of the date||
Canada Revenue Agency. (n.d.). Using your home for daycare. http://support.drtax.ca/dtmax/eng/kb/dtmax/eng/p134-13e.pdf
|(Canada Revenue Agency, n.d., p. 6).
According to the Canada Revenue Agency (n.d.), … (p. 6).
|Title||Describe the work in square brackets in place of the title||
Mosier, H. (1883). [Letter to town council regarding looting].
|(Mosier, 1883, para. 4).
Mosier (1883) suggested that… (para. 4).
|Retrieval information||Cite as personal communication||No reference entry is required.||(J. L. Hawks, personal communication, May 12, 2020).
According to J. L. Hawks (personal communication, May 12, 2020), …
|Author and title||Describe the work in square brackets in place off the author||[Customer feedback for Toronto Zoo]. (2013). eConestoga.||([Customer feedback for Toronto Zoo], 2013, para. 2).
According to [Customer feedback for Toronto Zoo] (2013), … (para. 2).
Note. Adapted from American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 284.