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Reference List

Reference Entries with Missing Information

Use the following table to help you create references and citations that are missing key information.

Table 1

Creating a Reference and Citation When Information is Missing
Missing element Solution Example of reference Example of in-text citations
Author Place the title in the author place Understanding Youth. (2013). eConestoga. (Understanding Youth, 2013, p. 14).
According to Understanding Youth (2013)… (p.13).
Date Write “n.d.” in place of the date

Canada Revenue Agency. (n.d.). Using your home for daycare.

(Canada Revenue Agency, n.d., p. 6).
According to the Canada Revenue Agency (n.d.), … (p. 6).
Title Describe the work in square brackets in place of the title

Mosier, H. (1883). [Letter to town council regarding looting].

(Mosier, 1883, para. 4).
Mosier (1883) suggested that… (para. 4).
Retrieval information Cite as personal communication No reference entry is required. (J. L. Hawks, personal communication, May 12, 2020).
According to J. L. Hawks (personal communication, May 12, 2020), …
Author and title Describe the work in square brackets in place off the author [Customer feedback for Toronto Zoo]. (2013). eConestoga. ([Customer feedback for Toronto Zoo], 2013, para. 2).
According to [Customer feedback for Toronto Zoo] (2013), … (para. 2).

Note. Adapted from American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 284.